Yg56ed313317ee891915edd2d450d87646119da30b2118844c7de419f2ca881f90.0 The bacteria that causes syphilis, Treponema pallidum, is sexually transmitted, but can also pass from an infected pregnant woman to...


"More than half of new infections were among people aged 15 to 24, and the pandemic lockdowns only tell part of the story. Here’s a look at how we got here—and what we can do about it."


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are skyrocketingc in the United States, according to the latest data, as gonorrhea, syphilis, and congenital syphilis soared above pre-pandemic levels in 2021. All are preventable and curable if detected early. If that’s the case, why are the numbers increasing?

It’s true COVID-19 scrambled and exhausted our healthcare system—but the pandemic explains only part of how we ended up here. Generations-old stigmas, decreased funding of health programs, and limited sex education all contribute.

These factors explain the shocking new STI numbers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The agency reported that there are at least 2.5 million cases of the four major STIs (the three previously mentioned and chlamydia). Despite having federally funded prevention programs, this number rose 4 percent from 2020.

Those are just reported cases. The CDC notes that a 2018 report found as many as one in five people (about 68 million) have an STI (also known as an STD), so it’s highly likely the actual numbers are even higher. “STIs show no signs of slowing down,” says Leandro Mena, director of CDC’s STI prevention division.



Top: This colored scanning electron micrograph shows a chlamydia infection, with Chlamydia trachomatis bacteria in yellow. Chlam...Read More

Bottom: This colored scanning electron micrograph shows the round bacteria that causes gonorrhea, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, o...Read More

Anyone can get an STI, but cases are not evenly distributed. Half were among teens and young adults, ages 15 to 24. Thirty-one percent of all cases of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were among Black people, even though they make up only 12 percent of the U.S. population. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are also disproportionately affected. Almost 40 percent of MSM reporting syphilis had also been diagnosed with HIV.

(Nat Geo predicted a rise in STI numbers last year.)

These disparities are stark, but it doesn’t mean people outside these groups have nothing to worry about. In fact, Mena says anyone who is sexually active should “routinely get tested, at least once a year—especially if you are changing partners, [and] before you start a relationship.”

Syphilis is a great example of why we need to take precautions. Syphilis was relatively recently thought to be on the cusp of eradication, but it surged 32 percent from 2020 to 2021. When a woman has syphilis, she can pass congenital syphilis to her baby—but this is preventable through early detection, says Kristen Batstone, a policy expert at the National Women's Health Network.

Experts in health policy and infectious disease doctors tell us what to take away from this report and how we can reverse the trend.

How’d we get here?

We are learning more about the far-reaching effects of the pandemic, and rising STI numbers are one significant way it has impacted the health of Americans.

Although the relationship between the pandemic and STIs might not be immediately clear, the cause and effect is relatively simple: At the height of the pandemic, personnel and resources like medical supplies were diverted to fight COVID-19. As a result, STI screening, treatment, and prevention were put on hold or limited. Doctors were addressing urgent health needs, which, in some cases, meant overlooking things like STI screening. People also lost their jobs and their health care, making STI screening even harder to get.

“What COVID did reveal to us is that we have gaps within our healthcare system and our public health,” says Renata Sanders, a physician with the American Sexual Health Association and associate professor at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. “Those gaps really intersect with health disparities that exist in populations that are often most impacted by STDs, including unintended pregnancy, HIV, unstable housing, violence, inadequate insurance, for example.”

 (How centuries-old bones may reveal the origins of syphilis.)

The pandemic was a relatively short-term stress on STI care. Experts say the CDC’s new report isn’t surprising, given the long-term trend of STI cases steadily increasing for a decade. 

Local health agencies are responsible for implementing care suited for their communities, but they rely heavily on federal funding, according to Rebekah Horowitz, director of STI programs at the National Association of County Health Officials. Until recently, the federal budget for STD prevention stayed the same for almost two decades. Horowitz says that while each community has very different needs, local budgets should be at least doubled.

People most in need

Half of the STI cases in the new report were among teens and adolescents. One contributing reason: Some local policies limit sex education. Where that happens, kids are left to find answers about sex from their friends or online. It’s not just youth that could use more guidance, though. Sanders says doctors themselves may not know where to get guidance on who to screen or when to screen for STIs. Without consistent guidance, screening among youth may be overlooked.


Minors need adult consent and financial assistance in a number of ways related to sexual health and monitoring: They need consent for testing and treatment; they need transportation and access to health care; they need insurance; and they need money to pay for care. Asking for help means young people need to know what sexual behaviors put them at risk. And it requires them to take a perhaps even bigger step: asking their parents.

With the stigma around STIs, young people may not even be telling their friends they’re sexually active, let alone their parents. As a result, they may not receive information about how to prevent STIs. All these factors result in risk for unprotected sex, as well as delayed STI diagnosis and treatment, which leads to people spreading STIs unknowingly, Sanders says. 

People in the LGBT community face discrimination based on their sexuality, making it even harder for them to get care. Last month, Tennessee rejected federal funding for HIV prevention because it wants more control over who gets the money. Despite MSM being one of the most affected groups, the state wants to focus on HIV transmission to first responders and from mothers to babies.


Native Americans and Black people also deal with racism and a history of being medically mistreated, and many distrust healthcare providers. People who are low income or live in rural areas have less access to care because of affordability or distance. Often, people belong to more than one of these groups, making it much more difficult for them to get care.

There are some things you can do on your own, Mena says: talk to your partners about the plan to manage sexual health. There are resources from American Sexual Health Association and CDC for parents, adolescents, and the LGBT community about how to talk to your partners and navigate stigma, as well as learn about respectful relationships, consent, sexual violence, and of course, STI prevention. 

Reversing the trends

Overcoming the decade-long trend of increasing STI rates will require a significant effort, starting with additional funding for public health systems. COVID-19 was useful in showing that state and local governments can quickly organize free testing and treatment—a necessity for those who are low income or uninsured.


Horowitz says she hopes to see local health departments partner with pharmacies and urgent care facilities so people have more options to get screened and treated. Now, there’s huge variability in how providers screen for STIs, she says, so guidelines should be put in place to screen patients more regularly and universally. Doctors should also be given guidelines about what to talk about with their patients, Batstone says.

“Providers are really at the forefront of elevating the importance of sexual health, [and must] not stigmatize sexual health as part of overall health and wellness,” Mena says. He adds that CDC’s goal is to update their STI treatment guidance “more regularly, almost in real time, as new knowledge and new evidence comes out.”

Sean Cahill, director of health policy research at Fenway Health, an LGBT health care organization, points to the Mpox outbreak last year: “We really have to be prepared for infectious disease outbreaks, including STI outbreaks, because you just don't know what could be coming down the pike.”


Mena says “there’s reason for hope”: there’s been success with reducing new HIV infections and herpes. Advancing technology is allowing for easier screening and treatment. Mena says a new medicine is showing promise in trials that will reduce risk of gonorrhea, chlamydia and syphilis taken up to 72 hours after sex. At home testing is becoming more available, and vaccines for bacterial STIs are being developed.

Source: nationalgeographic.com





A team led by researchers at the University of Montreal has found evidence that two exoplanets orbiting a red dwarf star are "water worlds," where water makes up a large fraction of the entire planet. These worlds, located in a planetary system 218 light-years away in the constellation Lyra, are unlike any planet found in our solar system.

The team, led by Caroline Piaulet of the Trottier Institute for Research on Exoplanets at the University of Montreal, published a detailed study of this planetary system, known as Kepler-138, in the journal Nature Astronomy today.

IMG 20230426 WA0005n this illustration super-Earth Kepler-138 d is in the foreground. To the left, the planet Kepler-138 c, and in the background the planet Kepler 138 b, seen in silhouette transiting its central star. Kepler 138 is a red dwarf star located 218 light-years away. The low density of Kepler-138 c and Kepler-138 d – which are nearly identical in size – means that they must be composed largely of water. They are both twice Earth's mass but have roughly half of Earth's density, and therefore cannot be solid rock. This is based on measurements of their mass versus physical diameter. They are considered a new class of "water planet," unlike any major planet found in our solar system. Kepler-138 b is one of the smallest exoplanets known, having the mass of the planet Mars and the density of rock.
Credits: NASA, ESA, and Leah Hustak (STScI)


Piaulet and colleagues observed exoplanets Kepler-138 c and Kepler-138 d with NASA's Hubble and the retired Spitzer space telescopes and discovered that the planets could be composed largely of water. These two planets and a smaller planetary companion closer to the star, Kepler-138 b, had been discovered previously by NASA's Kepler Space Telescope. The new study found evidence for a fourth planet, too.

Water wasn't directly detected at Kepler-138 c and d, but by comparing the sizes and masses of the planets to models, astronomers conclude that a significant fraction of their volume – up to half of it – should be made of materials that are lighter than rock but heavier than hydrogen or helium (which constitute the bulk of gas giant planets like Jupiter). The most common of these candidate materials is water.

"We previously thought that planets that were a bit larger than Earth were big balls of metal and rock, like scaled-up versions of Earth, and that's why we called them super-Earths," explained Björn Benneke, study co-author and professor of astrophysics at the University of Montreal. "However, we have now shown that these two planets, Kepler-138 c and d, are quite different in nature and that a big fraction of their entire volume is likely composed of water. It is the best evidence yet for water worlds, a type of planet that was theorized by astronomers to exist for a long time."

5fd7ede7d43b919d6abd48bcf3126698bb3abe81f6b910774a2e416ab6016727.0This is an artist's illustration showing a cross-section of the Earth (left) and the exoplanet Kepler-138 d (right). Like the Earth, this exoplanet has an interior composed of metals and rocks (brown portion), but Kepler-138 d also has a thick layer of high-pressure water in various forms: supercritical and potentially liquid water deep inside the planet and an extended water vapor envelope (shades of blue) above it. These water layers make up more than 50% of its volume, or a depth of about 1,243 miles (2,000 kilometers). The Earth, in comparison, has a negligible fraction of liquid water with an average ocean depth of less than 2.5 miles (4 kilometers)
Credits: Benoit Gougeon (University of Montreal)


With volumes more than three times that of Earth and masses twice as big, planets c and d have much lower densities than Earth. This is surprising because most of the planets just slightly bigger than Earth that have been studied in detail so far all seemed to be rocky worlds like ours. The closest comparison, say researchers, would be some of the icy moons in the outer solar system that are also largely composed of water surrounding a rocky core.

"Imagine larger versions of Europa or Enceladus, the water-rich moons orbiting Jupiter and Saturn, but brought much closer to their star," explained Piaulet. "Instead of an icy surface, they would harbor large water-vapor envelopes."

Researchers caution the planets may not have oceans like those on Earth directly at the planet's surface. "The temperature in Kepler-138 d's atmosphere is likely above the boiling point of water, and we expect a thick dense atmosphere made of steam on this planet. Only under that steam atmosphere there could potentially be liquid water at high pressure, or even water in another phase that occurs at high pressures, called a supercritical fluid," Piaulet said.

In 2014, data from NASA's Kepler Space Telescope allowed astronomers to announce the detection of three planets orbiting Kepler-138. This was based on a measurable dip in starlight as the planet momentarily passed in front of their star.

Benneke and his colleague Diana Dragomir, from the University of New Mexico, came up with the idea of re-observing the planetary system with the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes between 2014 and 2016 to catch more transits of Kepler-138 d, the third planet in the system, in order to study its atmosphere.

A new exoplanet in the system

The two possible water worlds, Kepler-138 c and d, are not located in the habitable zone, the area around a star where temperatures would allow liquid water on the surface of a rocky planet. But in the Hubble and Spitzer data, researchers additionally found evidence for a new planet in the system, Kepler-138 e, in the habitable zone.

This newly found planet is small and farther from its star than the three others, taking 38 days to complete an orbit. The nature of this additional planet, however, remains an open question because it does not seem to transit its host star. Observing the exoplanet's transit would have allowed astronomers to determine its size.

With Kepler-138 e now in the picture, the masses of the previously known planets were measured again via the transit timing-variation method, which consists of tracking small variations in the precise moments of the planets' transits in front of their star caused by the gravitational pull of other nearby planets.

The researchers had another surprise: they found that the two water worlds Kepler-138 c and d are "twin" planets, with virtually the same size and mass, while they were previously thought to be drastically different. The closer-in planet, Kepler-138 b, on the other hand, is confirmed to be a small Mars-mass planet, one of the smallest exoplanets known to date.

"As our instruments and techniques become sensitive enough to find and study planets that are farther from their stars, we might start finding a lot more of these water worlds," Benneke concluded.

IMG 20230426 WA0008Using data from NASA’s Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes, astronomers found evidence that two exoplanets orbiting a star 218 light-years away are “water worlds,” where water makes up a large fraction of the entire planet
Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Lead Producer: Paul Morris
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, manages the telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) in Baltimore, Maryland, conducts Hubble science operations. STScI is operated for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, in Washington, D.C.
Source: nasa.gov


Berikut utasan twit dari @henrysubiakto tentang rencana BENTARA yang akan membangun  Listrik dari  6 Sumber Energi yang akan dipakai untuk Penambangan uang baru Kripto dan Altcoin.

Rencana kami BENTARA yang akan membangun BENTARA Quantum Valley di Sumedang.

Akan menjadi percontohan buat Energi Baru Terbarukan.

Disana nanti,
Akan kita bangun Listrik dari 5 sumber energi, yaitu:

1. Panas Surya
Solar panel akan menghiasi lahan kita

2. Micro Hydro
Sungai di sekeliling area kita akan dimanfaatkan untuk listrik dari arus air nya.

3. Gas Panas Bumi
Pipa gas dari air panas pengunungan.

4. Biogas
Kotoran Hewan akan menjadikan kita punya Listrik juga.

5. Angin
Mini Turbin dari angin akan menggerakkan dan menghasilkan listrik.

Dengan 5 sumber listrik dari Energi Baru Terbarukan, kita akan pakai untuk memiliki Penambangan Uang Baru, Kripto

Bukan hanya bitcoin yang ditambang kok, ada banyak sekali AltCoin yang juga bisa ditambang.




SitindaonNews.Com - Istilah metaverse menjadi salah satu topik yang ramai diperbincangkan di industri teknologi. Istilah ini dipopulerkan oleh CEO Meta, Mark Zuckerberg, pada 2021 lalu.

Meski belum ada definisi yang pasti, metaverse sendiri dapat diartikan sebagai dunia virtual baru yang memungkinkan seseorang direpresentasikan dengan avatar, lalu dapat berinteraksi, bermain game, bekerja, dan berkomunikasi dengan orang lainnya dalam ruang tiga dimensi (3D).

Berbagai perusahaan teknologi pun berlomba-lomba membuat "metaverse" versinya masing-masing.

Namun, CEO Microsoft, Satya Nadella, mengungkapkan bahwa konsep metaverse sebenarnya tak lain adalah seperti membuat game.

"Lihat apa yang terjadi di metaverse. Apa itu metaverse? Metaverse pada dasarnya adalah tentang membuat game," kata Nadella.

Menurut Nadella, membuat metaverse itu pada dasarnya adalah kemampuan menempatkan orang, tempat, benda dalam mesin fisika. Lalu, semua orang, tempat, benda dalam mesin fisika tadi saling berhubungan.

Ia mencontohkan, di metaverse, seseorang dan kolega kerjanya bisa hadir di ruang rapat yang sama secara virtual yang diwakili menggunkan avatar.

Lalu dilengkapi dengan suara agar percakapan yang berlangsung layaknya benar-benar terjadi di sekeliling pengguna.

"Coba tebak? Tempat di mana kami telah melakukan itu semua selama ini adalah saat bermain game," tambah Nadella.

Bos Microsoft itu mengambil contoh game balap mobil keluaran Microsoft, Forza. Dalam game tersebut, kata Nadella, pengguna sudah direpresentasikan dengan avatar. Hanya saja avatar-nya bukan dalam bentuk karakter orang, melainkan mobil.

Layaknya konsep avatar di metaverse yang bisa didandani sedemikian rupa, kata Nadella, mobil miliknya di game Forza juga bisa dimodifikasi sesuai keinginan pengguna.

Hal inilah membuat metaverse juga memiliki kosep yang sama dengan game, sebagaimana dihimpun KompasTekno dari PCWorld, Jumat (4/2/2022).

Butuh kacamata VR dan sarung tangan haptic


Sarung tangan haptic yang dikembangkan Meta masih harus ditopang dengan penambat.

Meski disamakan dengan game, metaverse agaknya tidak sesederhana seperti bermain game di ponsel, PC, ataupun konsol.

Pasalnya, pengalaman di metaverse akan sangat bergantung dengan teknologi canggih seperti kacamata Virtual Reality (VR) dan sarung canggih dengan teknologi haptic.

Hal ini seperti yang diungkapkan oleh pendiri Microsoft, Bill Gates pada Desember 2021 lalu. Ketika itu, Gates sempat meramalkan bahwa pertemuan daring bakal diadakan di metaverse dalam dua-tiga tahun ke depan.

Gates mengatakan bahwa kacamata VR dan sarung tangan berteknologi haptic akan menjadi dua perangkat penting untuk menghadirkan pengalaman rapat virtual secara lebih nyata di metaverse.

Sebab, teknologi VR ini mampu menciptakan dunia simulasi 3D, mirip seperti dunia nyata atau dunia imajinasi sekalipun. Simulasi 3D akan membuat kesan seolah-olah apa yang dilihat dengan VR adalah nyata.

Sementara sarung tangan dengan teknologi haptic memungkinkan penggunanya seakan benar-benar menyentuh obyek virtual, sebab teknolgi ini mengaplikasikan sensasi sentuhan ke dalam interaksi manusia dengan komputer.

"Jadi kedua perangkat itu dapat menangkap ekspresi, bahasa tubuh, dan kualitas suara Anda secara akurat," tulis Gates

Sejauh ini, kacamata VR memang sudah dimanfaatkan untuk keperluan bermain game atau video.

Meski begitu, menurut Gates, kebanyakan orang masih belum memiliki kacamata VR sekaligus sarung tangan haptic untuk mendapatkan pengalaman yang lebih nyata di metaverse.

Hal itulah yang disebut Gates bakal memperlambat adopsi virtual meeting di metaverse.

Sumber: kompas.com



Aset digital Non-Fungible Token (NFT) menjadi populer di awal 2022 untuk memperjualbelikan hasil karya dan meraup keuntungan besar

Berikut cara kerja jual beli aset dengan kripto yang sudah ada sejak 2014 itu.


Cara Kerja NFT